Només volem ser catalans: Els vàndals de la wikipedia espanyola.

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Després d’una tortuosa relació amb la censura franquista en vida, ara es la wikipedia espanyola qui torna a censurar la figura de Manuel de Pedrolo.

La censura i l’escriptor segarrenc van ser – malauradament – companys de camí durant tota la seva carrera. Qui fou un dels novel·listes més important de les lletres catalanes (conreant també, com sabem, tots els altres gèneres literaris) va ser perseguit indiscriminadament per “Les tisores de la censura” –aprofito l’encertat títol del llibre de l’Estanislau Torres que parla precisament del cas Pedrolo.

A banda de l’estudi de Torres, n’existeixen moltes altres referències a les dificultats de publicació que va tenir l’obra Pedroliana per culpa de la censura franquista: l’article la Lidwina M. van den Hout a la Universitat de Chicago i el Cas Pedrolo: censurat de la filòloga pedroliana Dra Anna Maria Moreno i Bedmar en són bons exemples. Però avui no parlaré d’aquest ja conegut tipus de censura.

Yo he venido aquí a hablar de mi tuit

 

Amb aquesta piulada volia mostrar la meva frustració quan, fa només uns dies, em vaig trobar amb un article de la wikipedia en espanyol dedicat a Manuel de Pedrolo, on es cita a l’escriptor segarrenc com a “un escritor español en lengua catalana”. Naturalment, tractant-se la wikipedia d’una “Enciclopedia libre”, vaig voler contribuir a corregir aquest error i vaig entrar amb el meu compte per tal de modificar aquesta dada. La resposta, en forma d’un missatge d’avís, em va deixar sense paraules:

 

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Aquest és el missatge d’error. Podeu veure un vídeo de l’acció sencera si cliqueu sobre la imatge.

 

Amb la certesa que la meva edició era legítima, vaig provar de seguir el consell del missatge i escriure als ‘bibliotecaris’, un grup d’usuaris amb més drets d’edició (i censura) a la wikipedia. Podeu veure la resposta que vaig rebre.

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Conversa amb l’equip de bibliotecaris de la wikipedia espanyola. Cliqueu per visitar la pàgina.

 

La nacionalidad es un criterio meramente administrativo, diuen. Sembla que a la wikipedia espanyola també saben, com a l’Estat Espanyol, quan toca aferrar-se al llibre d’instruccions (confio que les normes de la wikipedia espanyola no les signessin també el 78, perquè ho sembla). La meva acció va ser política, en sóc molt conscient, però després d’estudiar l’obra d’aquest escriptor durant els últims cinc anys, dir que Manuel de Pedrolo va ser un escriptor espanyol em sembla una de les afirmacions més incongruents que he vist mai en línia. Per si de cas no n’estàvem prou farts del més que repetit comentari infantil “A ver, ¿qué pone en tu DNI?”, ara ens falten el respecte atacant els nostres referents més importants.

 

L’atac sembla sistemàtic, poques hores després de la meva piulada, el Miquel Strubell ens va mostrar com això també passa als articles sobre Lluís Companys i Josep Trueta:

 

 

La part més greu d’aquest assumpte ja no és la només la dificultat de negociar aquestes decisions, sinó l’actitud implacable que mostren alguns usuaris de la Wikipedia espanyola (no vull generalitzar) quan es toca el tema català. Després d’un parell d’interaccions amb un usuari que qüestiona la creació i les modificacions a l’article de l’obra completa de Pedrolo i en fa les modificacions que ell creu necessàries sense justificació o documentació, sóc jo qui em trobo amb acusacions de fer edicions arbitràries en aquest article (creat per mi i només editat per ell i jo) i consells de com m’he de comportar a la plataforma (falta d’etiqueta).

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Automàticament se m’afegeix a una llista de possibles membres a bloquejar a la wikipedia i fins i tot s’hi afegeix una petita teoria de conspiració (sembla que uns quants usuaris van provar de canviar la nacionalitat de Pedrolo el mateix dia: això és vandalisme nacionalista a gran escala, senyories). He d’agrair la intervenció d’un altre usuari de la wikipedia amb més drets d’edició (i seny) que tanca el cas i evita el meu bloqueig – per això no vull generalitzar, d’usuaris que respecten la llibertat d’expressió a les xarxes també n’hi ha a la wikipedia espanyola:

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No deixar Pedrolo ser qui va ser, simplement català, negar-li la seva identitat, és també ignorar completament la feina de tota una vida i el seu irreductible compromís amb la llengua i cultura catalanes. És negar-li la identitat a tot un poble; res que ens vingui de nou. No crec que s’hagi de demanar permís per ser català, i menys a les xarxes, però queda molt clar que hi ha qui no opina el mateix.

 

La pregunta ja no és “quan ens deixaran ser catalans?” ja fa temps que molts hem pres la decisió de ser-ho pel nostre compte. La pregunta és “quan se n’adonaran ells que ja som catalans?” i encara més important “quan aprendran que l’únic vandalisme nacionalista en aquesta història és el seu?”

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Manuel de Pedrolo and Catalan Culture in Ireland

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It is not the first time that Manuel de Pedrolo’s works has trespassed across Catalonia’s frontiers; Martin Esslin praised his drama in his influential The Theatre of the Absurd (1961), Wesley Barnes included him in his study of The Philosophy and Literature of Existentialism (1968), and George E. Wellwarth mentioned his plays in his article Spanish Underground Drama (1972). More examples of the internationalization of this Catalan author’s works can be seen in the review of his Mecanoscrit del segon origen by the American-based scholar Peter Cocozzella (1975), the analysis made by Louise Johnson in her 1999’s essay Some thoughts on Pedrolo: Estrangement, mothers and others, and the translations of his most successful novels and plays to various European languages.

On this occasion, however, the international presence of Pedrolo’s works acquires a more physical sense, as sixty-eight of Pedrolo’s works have travelled to University College Cork, Ireland, to be located in the Arts and Humanities section of its library. Adelais de Pedrolo, daughter of the author and president of the Manuel de Pedrolo Foundation, kindly donated these books to the Irish institution, after learning that research on the author was being conducted in UCC’s Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies. The project, involving a digital approach to the study of Pedrolo’s legacy and its relationship with Catalan’s literary space during the second half of the twentieth century, is being conducted by PhD student Pedro Fernández – also responsible for the Digital Creative Writing initiative Temps Obert v11.1 – and supervised by Dr. Helena Buffery, current president of The Anglo-Catalan Society and scholar in Catalan Studies.

books_MEDThe books are located in the Arts and Humanities section of University College Cork’s library

These 68 books are now available for consultation and represent what is probably the largest collection of Pedrolo’s works outside Catalonia. Ronan Madden at UCC’s library has taken the lead in the task of cataloguing these works, putting extra special care into indicating the date of composition of every work in the entries. In this particular case, this is as important a detail as the publication date, as Pedrolo’s career was so affected by censorship that the gap between the composition of the work and the actual publication date is sometimes as long as twenty years.

University College Cork is a well-known reference point in Ireland for Hispanic Studies. Its Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies (SPLAS) is known for its multifaceted approach to Hispanic and Iberian Studies, and has hosted international conferences attracting scholars and researchers from Mexican, Argentinian, Galician, Basque, Catalan and Spanish Studies. As far as Catalan literature and culture is concerned, the department is also very active, offering Catalan Language and Culture as subjects at second and final year level in its undergraduate curriculum, thanks to the funding of Institut Ramon Llull and the hard work of the Catalan lectora Núria Massot, who is also a key figure in the promotion of Catalan Culture among Corkonians. Through close collaboration with the Institut Ramon Llull and Cork City Libraries, the department has organized annual events as part of the Cork World Book Fest, celebrated to coincide with the Dia de Sant Jordi. Past events include the visit of Catalan personalities such as poet Jaume Subirana in 2012, cinematographer Isona Passola in 2013, and the recent visits of musician Pau Alabajos and writer Marc Pastor during this year’s edition. Along with these activities, this year will see another important event for Catalan studies in Ireland, as the Anglo-Catalan Society’s 60th anniversary Conference will be held at University College Cork from the 5th to the 7th of September 2014.

Grouppic_MEDFrom left to right: Ronan Madden, Pedro Fernández, Helena Buffery and Núria Massot

If this has been a dynamic year for Catalan Culture in Ireland, these books have also reached the island at a key moment for Pedrolian studies as a whole. In May, a conference about Pedrolian studies Manuel de Pedrolo, contra l’oblit, will be held at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona. Led by Catalan writer Sebastià Benassar, it is the first time that such a conference on Pedrolo has been celebrated since the 1990´s colloquium Rellegir Pedrolo.

Everything indicates that this could be a good year for Pedrolian studies. The opportunity to break with a twenty-five year period of academic oblivion seems to be within reach. Pedrolo’s relationship with academia has been a problematic one; his condition as a best selling author during the 1970s and 1980s (particularly fuelled by the success of Mecanoscrit del segon origen) made critics reluctant to include any of his works in the canon. Nowadays, the vast and heterogeneous nature of his production stands as a challenge to any scholar interested in analyzing his lifetime project.

The conservation and recognition of the life and works of this prolific writer will therefore require the commitment of Catalan academics to shift their focus towards the figure of this writer “without limits”, who was so central to the contemporary history of Catalan literature. Only four years away from the centenary of the author’s birth, there is still a lot of work to be done in order to do justice to this writer. If our expectations have been raised as cinematographer Carles Porta works against the clock to complete Bigas Luna’s posthumous project – a film adaptation of Mecanoscrit del segon Origen – my only wish is that its commercial success might serve to create awareness of this unjustly forgotten author, and that similar projects to the Jornada Universitària organized by Benassar continue to appear in the future.

threebooks

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The Round-robin Approach

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One of the usual tasks of traditional researchers involves the creation of labels that situate their work within the otherwise infinite pool of knowledge constructed by mankind. Their tendency has often been to dissect this knowledge in small and carefully shaped pieces that meet the requirements of a specific field. This propensity to individualize areas of study is beneficial to a certain degree and completely justified in moments when academic practice is shifting towards new forms of knowledge. However, as internalized in the general practice as this process may be, it can come at a price in the exceptional times we are currently witnessing, with the Humanities experiencing a massive transformation driven by the Digital Age.

The price I am referring to is the loss of qualitative research production as a result of an excessive fragmentation of knowledge into emerging study areas. I came to think of these dangers during last Friday’s talk at UCC by Professor Enrique Santos Unamuno, from University of Extremadura. When talking about the multidisciplinary projects he is currently involved in, his exposition focused on highlighting the different skills that every contributor was adding to the overall project. Rather than labeling or restraining the scope of his work through new terminology, he employed existing notions taken from philology, cartography, computer science, philosophy, literary criticism between many others, and insisted on the need of all these fields to come together and collaborate between them.

In order for this collaboration to produce qualitative research, there is another necessary ingredient to the recipe: expertise. Through mastering their own field, researchers must excel at it while also becoming aware of their limitations when approaching other areas of knowledge. The aim is to seek the expert advice of other top researchers in these other disciplines, rather than unsuccessfully attempt the impossible task of becoming the ultimate interdisciplinary researcher who can master all subject areas.

Therefore, when we talk about Digital Humanities and its contribution to knowledge, I believe that above all, we have to highlight its collaborative nature, its ability to put together experts on existing fields that are willing to create new forms of knowledge. But most importantly, we have to be really careful when defining or labeling new sub areas within the discipline, as this can also restrain the skills associated to them. In other words, do the Digital Humanities search for a scholar who is an expert philologist interested in a collaboration with an expert on computer science, or do they want this scholar to be half proficient in computer science and half familiar with philological concepts?

Both scenarios are possible within the current definition of a digital humanist, but the question is which of them will produce the best research. The trend imposed by social media engines such as Twitter, which values quantity of information over quality, may be suitable for some aspects of a society shaped by the Digital Age, but when it comes to academia, epistemic integrity surely demands quality over quantity. In order to achieve this, collaboration between scholars in different areas of expertise is essential.

It was perhaps this same collaborative need, or even curiosity, which brought together some crime novel writers in the 1930’s. Figures such as Agatha Christie and Ronald Knox united their creative efforts with other twelve writers from the so-called Detection Club and created works such as The Scoop and Behind the Screen or The Floating Admiral, probably some of the first collaborative creative writing projects in history. Whereas the writing processes behind a literary work and a piece of research may differ considerably, these two practices may have more in common that what we think, as the level of expertise needed to succeed in a particular area of research can be compared to the level of specialization that a writer needs to achieve to succeed in a determinate literary genre.

My interest in this type of narratives is driven by the digital project based on Catalan author Manuel de Pedrolo: Temps Obert v11.1, which started off as a web-based free interpretation of Pedrolo’s ambitious novelistic series Temps obert, an eleven books approach to the concept of ultimate novel. After several weeks and close to forty posts,  the project has turned out to be an interesting portrait of how collaborative writing works, while showing the extent to which the writing process can be influenced by induced thematic and time restrictions; its weekly contributions from five different writers in their different mother tongues exemplify how the plot and style of a narrative can be shaped by not only the collaborative nature of its production, but also the immediacy of publishing on an online platform.

It is quite interesting to see how words evolve to convey different meanings though time, and even more surprising how we immediately associate these meanings to mental images. Since the moment I learned that these collaborative literary experiments were called Round-robin stories, I can’t help but imagine my four colleagues in the project as little fluffy robins chasing each other in circle, waiting for their weekly turn to write their four hundred words.

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